HOW TO UNDERSTAND ENGLISH GRAMMAR.
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|HOW TO UNDERSTAND ENGLISH GRAMMAR|
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It is our third class:
3 - NOUN
We see noun all around us. They are naming words. Any thing or every thing name is a noun.
A noun is the name of a person, animal, place or thing.
KINDS OF NOUNS :
Nouns are of four kinds:
1. PROPER NOUNS like India, New York, John.
2. COMMON NOUNS like country, city, person.
3. COLLECTIVE NOUNS like class, army, crew.
4. ABSTRACT NOUNS like kindness, beauty, pride.
Countable and Uncountable.
Nouns like country, city, river, person, class, army can be counted. So they are called countable. Generally speaking most of the common and collective nouns are countable.
Some common nouns that name materials like wood, milk, tea, glass are uncountable. Abstract nouns like kindness, pride, beauty, feelings are also uncountable.
1. PROPER NOUNS
Proper nouns are names given to particular people, places and things. They always begin with a capital letter.
(i) The names of people are proper nouns.
Sachin Tendulkar, Abdul Kalam, Barrak Obama, etc.
Your name, names of yours parents, relatives and friends are also proper nouns.
(ii) The names of the days of the week and names of the months are proper nouns.
Sunday, Monday, Tuesday...... January, February, March.........
(iii) The names of the rivers, seas and oceans are nouns.
The Ganges, the Pacific Ocean, Bay of Bengal, the Caspian Sea......
(iv) The names of festivals and special days are proper nouns.
Christmas, Diwali, Holi, Eid..... Independence Day..
(v) The names of famous places, buildings and monuments are proper nouns.
The Eiffel Tower, the Taj Mahal, New Delhi, New York...
(vi) The names of the people who live in a particular country are also proper nouns.
Americans, Germans, Indian, French, the British....
2. COMMON NOUNS
Common nouns are general words for people, animals, places and things.
Some common nouns for people.
Artist, doctor, pilot, driver, dancer, lawyer, carpenter, nurse, manager, plumber, photographer, scientist, magician, secretary, sailor, tailor, farmer......
Some common nouns for animals.
Elephant, dog, bear, fox, sheep, lion, cow, cat, tiger, kangaroo, whale, goat........
Common nouns for places.
Museum, airport, post office, hotel, library, church, temple, tomb, mosque, road, school, railway station, restaurant, factory, office, park.......
Common nouns for things.
Telephone, printer, chair, sofa, fridge, computer, book, calculator, carpet, bus, ship, pencil.......
Words for relations are also common nouns.
Father, mother, brother, sister, uncle, aunt, son, daughter, grandmother, grandfather, nephew, niece, cousin......
3. COLLECTIVE NOUNS
A collective noun is a word that describes a group of people, animals or things. For example :
Army - describes a group of soldiers.
Crowd - describes a group of people.
Crew - describes a group of sailors.
Herd - describes a group of cattle.
Bunch - describes flowers or fruits.
Team - describes a group of players.
4. ABSTRACT NOUNS
Many things we can not touch, see or measure. We can only have feelings about such things. Such as love, hate, anger, truth, lie etc.
Understand Abstract Noun by following sentences:
(i) Mother is known for her kindness.
(ii) Childhood is the golden period of life.
(iii) Principal was full of anger.
In the above sentences words given in color are abstract nouns.
An abstract noun is a word for feeling that cannot be seen or touched.
Words like love, beauty, truth, lie, kindness, anger, childhood, appearance, joy, jealousy are abstract nouns.
POSSESSIVE FORM OF NOUN
Read the sentence :
These books belong to John.
We can write it as - These are John's book. We use 's' to show belonging or possession.
The possessive form of a noun shows belonging or who owns something.
An apostrophe and an -s is used after singular nouns to make possessive form.
Ria's purse means purse belonging to Ria.
FORMING POSSESSIVE CASE/FORM OF PLURAL NOUNS
(i) We put an apostrophe and an -s ('s) after plural nouns that do not end with (s).
women's voice, men's voice, children's books
1. Women's voice is sharper than men's voice.
2. Children's book are colourful.
(ii) If a plural noun ends in s, we don't use 's. We just put an apostrophe after plural nouns that end with (s).
boys' hostel, girls' hostel, pupils' desk.
(iii) With names that end with (s), we can make the possessive form in two ways :
(a) We just put an apostrophe as :
Saras' car, Hippopotamus' mouth.
(b) We put an apostrophe and then add another (s).
Saras's car, Hippopotamus's mouth.
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