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Great Scientists Of India



Great Scientists Of India

India is the land of glorious history in the field of science and technology. It is the birth place of the great scientist Aryabhatta, who was the first to introduce the concept of numbers in the ancient times and this legacy has been carried forward by the modern scientists of the country, who have greatly contribution to the world with their inspiring inventions and discoveries.
Indian scientists have played a stellar role in the development of India. In the short span of its post-independence history India has achieved several great scientific achievements. India scientists have proved their mettle in the face of international sanctions and have made India one of the scientific powerhouses of the world.
This article will discuss the famous Indian scientists and inventors throughout history and their wonderful contributions.

Great Scientists Of India

1. Autar Singh Paintal

Director of Patel Chest Institute in Delhi is the discoverer of so called 'receptors' in human body. Autar Singh Paintal was born on Sept. 24, 1925 at Mogok, Myanmar (Burma).
Autar Singh Paintal
Director of Patel Chest Institute in Delhi is the discoverer of so called 'receptors' in human body. Autar Singh Paintal was born on Sept. 24, 1925 at Mogok, Myanmar (Burma). He made pioneering discoveries in the area of neurosciences and respiratory sciences. He was a merit student and did his post graduation in Physiology from King George Medical College, Lucknow. J.Receptors (Juxtapulmunary capillary receptors) are the nerve terminals in lungs which warn people that they have over worked and must rest. Similarly gastrointestinal stretch receptors are the nerve terminals in stomach which warn people that they can not take more food or water. He discovered a pair of volume receptors in the heart. He was died on Dec. 21, 2004.

2. C.K.N.Patel (Chandra Kumar Naranbhai Patel)

C.K.N.Patel was born on July 02, 1938 at Baramati near Pune. In 1958 he did his B.E. in telecommunication and then went to USA for higher studies.
C.K.N.Patel
C.K.N.Patel was born on July 02, 1938 at Baramati near Pune. In 1958 he did his B.E. in telecommunication and then went to USA for higher studies. At the age of 23 took his Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from Stanford University and joined Bell Laboratories, USA. He invented carbon dioxide laser in 1963 which makes laser useful for applications in several branches of science and technology. It is now widely used in industry for cutting and welding, as a laser scalpel in surgery, as a laser scalpel in surgery and in laser skin resurfacing.

3. Jayant Vishnu Narlikar

Jayant Vishnu Narlikar was born on July 19, 1938 at Kolhapur, Maharashtra, but was brought up in Varanasi in the house of his uncle, a mathematician. After doing his M.Sc. and Ph.D. from Banaras Hindu University, he went to Cambridge to do Ph.D. under Fred Hoyle at Kings College.
Jayant Vishnu Narlikar
Jayant Vishnu Narlikar was born on July 19, 1938 at Kolhapur, Maharashtra, but was brought up in Varanasi in the house of his uncle, a mathematician. After doing his M.Sc. and Ph.D. from Banaras Hindu University, he went to Cambridge to do Ph.D. under Fred Hoyle at Kings College. He has propounded a theory on formation of universe called as Steady State Theory according to which the universe has always been as it is today. Apart from this he worked on a new theory of gravitation which has been considered as significant as Einstein's Theory of Relativity. Narlikar is a proponent of steady state cosmology. He developed with Sir Fred Hoyle the conformal gravity theory, commonly known as Hoyle-Narlikar theory.

4. A. M. Chakrabarty (Ananda Mohan Chakrabarty)

A.M.Chakrabarty was born on April 4, 1938 in Sainthia near Calcutta. He is an Indian American microbiologist, scientist and researcher.  After completing M.Sc. and Ph.D. from Calcutta University, he migrated to USA.
A.M.Chakrabarty
A.M.Chakrabarty was born on April 4, 1938 in Sainthia near Calcutta. He is an Indian American microbiologist, scientist and researcher.  After completing M.Sc. and Ph.D. from Calcutta University, he migrated to USA. He discovered a substance which absorbs hydrocarbons with a rapid rate and is used to remove the crude oil which is spilled into the ocean while being carried from one country to the other through ships and harms the marine plants and animals and is therefore very useful.

5. Narendra Karmarkar

Narendra Karmarkar was born in Gwalior, M.P. in 1957 into a family of mathematicians. Narendra Karmarkar is an Indian mathematician. He is listed as an ISI highly cited researcher. However he took his degree in electrical engineering from IIT Bombay, and went to California for his Ph.D.
Narendra Karmarkar
Narendra Karmarkar was born in Gwalior, M.P. in 1957 into a family of mathematicians. Narendra Karmarkar is an Indian mathematician. He is listed as an ISI highly cited researcher. However he took his degree in electrical engineering from IIT Bombay, and went to California for his Ph.D. His main contribution however is in the field of mathematics where he developed a new Algorithm, known as karmarkar's algorithm, which is 50-100 times faster than previous Algorithm that was being used for making quick mathematical calculations. This is now used in making several computer programmes to help solve problems in a variety of operations at airports, communication networks, warehouses, factories, industrial plants and so on. He is working at Bell University, USA.

6. Chintamani Nagesa Ramchandra Rao

Chintamani Nagesa Ramchandra Rao was born on June 30, 1934 at Bengaluru. Did his M.Sc. from Banaras Hindu University and went to USA for Ph.D. where he worked on various aspects of spectroscopy under the guidance of Noble Laureate H.C.Brown.
Chintamani Nagesa Ramchandra Rao
Chintamani Nagesa Ramchandra Rao was born on June 30, 1934 at Bengaluru. Did his M.Sc. from Banaras Hindu University and went to USA for Ph.D. where he worked on various aspects of spectroscopy under the guidance of Noble Laureate H.C.Brown. His research work is mostly confined to solid state and structural chemistry. He is the third scientist to be awarded the highest civilian award - Bharat Ratna.

7. E. C. George Sudarshan

E.C.George Sudarshan was born on Sept. 16, 1931 at Kottayam, Kerala. After graduation from Madras Christian College he joined Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay where he came in contact with many world class physicists like P.A.M. Dirac and Wolfgang Pauli. Went to USA for further studies and settled there.
E.C.George Sudarshan
E.C.George Sudarshan was born on Sept. 16, 1931 at Kottayam, Kerala. After graduation from Madras Christian College he joined Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay where he came in contact with many world class physicists like P.A.M. Dirac and Wolfgang Pauli. Went to USA for further studies and settled there. He is best known for propounding the existence of tachyon s, particles that move faster than light. The other remarkable works include the theory he propounded, about the weak forces that exist between particles in a nucleus and quantum Zeno Paradox Theory.

8. Devendra Lal

Devendra Lal was born on Feb 14, 1929 in Varanasi, U.P. He made extensive studies of meteorites of Lunar rocks brought from Moon and material from the bed of the ocean. He evolved technique to understand past events in the solar system from cosmic ray signatures, the impression made by cosmic rays on various materials through which they pass.
Devendra Lal
Devendra Lal was born on Feb 14, 1929 in Varanasi, U.P. He made extensive studies of meteorites of Lunar rocks brought from Moon and material from the bed of the ocean. He evolved technique to understand past events in the solar system from cosmic ray signatures, the impression made by cosmic rays on various materials through which they pass. One of the most significant findings is that the intensity of cosmic rays during the last few million years has been the same as it is today. He was died on Dec. 01, 2012 at La- Jolla, California, United States.

9. M. G. K. Menon

Mambillikalathil Govind Kumar Menon, also known as M.G.K. Menon, is a physicist and policy maker. M. G. K. Menon was born on Aug. 28, 1928 at Mangalore in Karnatak. He did his Ph.D. in U.K. in 1949 where he did research under Nobel Laurate C.F.Powell and discovered a few elementary particles including ions of various energies, k-particles and specific category of pions.
M.G.K. Menon
Mambillikalathil Govind Kumar Menon, also known as M.G.K. Menon, is a physicist and policy maker. M. G. K. Menon was born on Aug. 28, 1928 at Mangalore in Karnatak. He did his Ph.D. in U.K. in 1949 where he did research under Nobel Laurate C.F.Powell and discovered a few elementary particles including ions of various energies, k-particles and specific category of pions. In 1955 he returned home and joined Tata institute of Fundamental Research. In 1970 elected fellow of Royal Society. In 1986 he was appointed scientific adviser to the prime minister. He has had a prominent role in the development of science and technology in India during the past four decades.

10. M.K. Vainu Bappu

Manali Kallat Vainu Bappu, M.K. Vainu Bappu was born on Aug. 10, 1927 at Madras. He was an Indian astronomer and president of the International Astronomical Union. After initial education at Hyderbad, he went to Horward in 1949 on a scholarship where he came across astronomer who like him was to make important contributions to astronomy. He has many firsts in his name. He is the first Indian astronomer whose name is tagged to a comet (Bappu - Bok - Newkirk Comet). He is the first Indian astronomer after whom an astronomical effect is known (Bappu-Wilson effect) which is used to determine the luminosity and distance of the particular kind of stars. He is the first Indian astronomer after whose name an observatory and India's most powerful telescope are known (the Kavalin Observatory and the 2.34 meter telescope installed there). He is the first Indian astronomer to have been elected the president of International Astronomical Union.
M.K. Vainu Bappu
Manali Kallat Vainu Bappu, M.K. Vainu Bappu was born on Aug. 10, 1927 at Madras. He was an Indian astronomer and president of the International Astronomical Union. After initial education at Hyderbad, he went to Horward in 1949 on a scholarship where he came across astronomer who like him was to make important contributions to astronomy. He has many firsts in his name. He is the first Indian astronomer whose name is tagged to a comet (Bappu - Bok - Newkirk Comet). He is the first Indian astronomer after whom an astronomical effect is known (Bappu-Wilson effect) which is used to determine the luminosity and distance of the particular kind of stars. He is the first Indian astronomer after whose name an observatory and India's most powerful telescope are known (the Kavalin Observatory and the 2.34 meter telescope installed there). He is the first Indian astronomer to have been elected the president of International Astronomical Union. Many of his achievements were made while he was abroad and he could well establish himself there but being a true patriot he came to India, remained unemployed for sometime, but struggled throughout his life to set up telescopes, astronomical observatories and institutes in the country so that his countrymen could pursue higher studies in astronomy and astrophysics. He was died on Aug. 19, 1982 at Munich, Germany.

11. Kamla Kant Pandey

Kamla Kant Pandey was born on Dec. 11, 1926 at Varanasi. He went to London to do research work on plant genes. After taking his Ph.D. went to New Zealand and settled there. In 1975 he made the discovery of a revolutionary technique in plant breeding, through which selected genes of a flowering plant can be transferred to another plant. He was also able to separate the desirable genes to make a cross breed.
Kamla Kant Pandey
Kamla Kant Pandey was born on Dec. 11, 1926 at Varanasi. He went to London to do research work on plant genes. After taking his Ph.D. went to New Zealand and settled there. In 1975 he made the discovery of a revolutionary technique in plant breeding, through which selected genes of a flowering plant can be transferred to another plant. He was also able to separate the desirable genes to make a cross breed.

12. M. S. Swaminathan

M.S. Swaminathan was born on Aug. 07, 1925 at Kumbakonam in Tamilnadu. Got his Ph.D. from School of Agriculture in Cambridge in 1952. He carried out research on various crops and was able to develop many new varieties, high yielding strains of wheat and rice. He is rightly called the Father of Green Revolution in India.
M.S. Swaminathan
M.S. Swaminathan was born on Aug. 07, 1925 at Kumbakonam in Tamilnadu. Got his Ph.D. from School of Agriculture in Cambridge in 1952. He carried out research on various crops and was able to develop many new varieties, high yielding strains of wheat and rice. He is rightly called the Father of Green Revolution in India. He was elected fellow of Royal Society in 1973. He is the first agricultural scientist to win Albert Einstein World Science award in 1986.

13. Raja Ramanna

Raja Ramanna was an Indian physicist who is best known for his role in India's nuclear program during its early stages. He was born on Jan. 28, 1925 at Tiptur. Did his Ph.D. at London University. In 1949 joined Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and later on headed the Nuclear Physics division of Bhabha Research Centre. He was mainly responsible for designing and installing the country's first series of nuclear reactors, Purnima, Ciras and Apsara, as well as testing of first nuclear device at Pokharan on 18th May, 1974.
Raja Ramanna
Raja Ramanna was an Indian physicist who is best known for his role in India's nuclear program during its early stages. He was born on Jan. 28, 1925 at Tiptur. Did his Ph.D. at London University. In 1949 joined Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and later on headed the Nuclear Physics division of Bhabha Research Centre. He was mainly responsible for designing and installing the country's first series of nuclear reactors, Purnima, Ciras and Apsara, as well as testing of first nuclear device at Pokharan on 18th May, 1974. It was his idea that explosion be attempted underground in desert area so as to prevent its ill effects. He was died on Sep. 24, 2004 at Mumbai.

14. Harish Chandra

Harish Chandra was born on Oct. 11, 1923 in Kanpur, U.P. He was educated at B.N.S.D. College, Kanpur and at the University of Allahabad. After receiving his master's degree in Physics in 1943, he moved to the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore for further studies in theoretical physics and worked with Homi J. Bhabha. In 1945 he moved to University of Cambridge and worked as a research student under Paul Dirac.
Harish Chandra
Harish Chandra was born on Oct. 11, 1923 in Kanpur, U.P. He was educated at B.N.S.D. College, Kanpur and at the University of Allahabad. After receiving his master's degree in Physics in 1943, he moved to the Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore for further studies in theoretical physics and worked with Homi J. Bhabha. In 1945 he moved to University of Cambridge and worked as a research student under Paul Dirac. While at Cambridge, he attended lectures by Wolfgang Pauli and during one of them pointed out a mistake in Pauli's work. The two were to become lifelong friends. During this time he became increasingly interested in mathematics. Later on he shifted to mathematics and developed a new branch of mathematics, called Infinite Dimensional Group Representation Theory to such an extent that it is now being used in all branches of mathematics. He was an Indian American mathemetician and physicist who did fundamental work in representaion theory, especially harmonic analysis on semisimple Lie groups. He was died on 16 Oct. 1983 at Princeton, New Jersey, United States.

15. Har Gobind Khorana

Har Gobind Khorana was born in Raipur now in Pakistan. After passing B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Punjab University, Lahore, he did Ph.D. at university of Liver Pool. He went abroad when could not get suitable job in India. In 1959 he produced a chemical called Co-enzyme A and was awarded Nobel Prize for medicine in 1968 for production of artificial gene in his laboratory. He was died on 9 November 2011 at Concord , Massachusetts, U.S.
Har Gobind Khorana
Har Gobind Khorana was born in Raipur now in Pakistan. After passing B.Sc. and M.Sc. from Punjab University, Lahore, he did Ph.D. at university of Liver Pool. He went abroad when could not get suitable job in India. In 1959 he produced a chemical called Co-enzyme A and was awarded Nobel Prize for medicine in 1968 for production of artificial gene in his laboratory. He was died on 9 November 2011 at Concord , Massachusetts, U.S.

16. G.N. Ramchandran

G.N. Ramchandran was born in 1922. He had studied under C.V.Raman and Lawrence Brogg of Cambridge. He introduced a new subject molecular biophysics in his college and worked on molecular structure of complicated chemical compounds present in human body. He started with collagen, a commonly occurring protein in human body which is found in connective tissues of the skin, bones and tandems as well as linings of many organs for example leather and was successful.
G.N. Ramchandran
G.N. Ramchandran was born in 1922. He had studied under C.V.Raman and Lawrence Brogg of Cambridge. He introduced a new subject molecular biophysics in his college and worked on molecular structure of complicated chemical compounds present in human body. He started with collagen, a commonly occurring protein in human body which is found in connective tissues of the skin, bones and tandems as well as linings of many organs for example leather and was successful. He was elected fellow of Royal society in 1977. He was died on 7 April 2001 at Chennai.

17. C.R.Rao

C.R.Rao was born on sept. 10, 1920 at Hadagali in Karnataka. After passing M.A. in Mathematics, he took up statistics as his field of work. He first caught the attention of the world of statistics when in 1945 he put forward the theory of estimation. The theory enables one to find an unknown quantity from a pile of data.
C.R.Rao
C.R.Rao was born on sept. 10, 1920 at Hadagali in Karnataka. After passing M.A. in Mathematics, he took up statistics as his field of work. He first caught the attention of the world of statistics when in 1945 he put forward the theory of estimation. The theory enables one to find an unknown quantity from a pile of data. Later on he developed many formulas and theorems, such as Cramer-Rao Inequality, the Fisher Theorem and Rao-Blackwellisation which made him world famous statistician. He was elected fellow of Royal Society in 1967.

18. Vikram Sarabhai

Vikram Sarabhai was born on Aug. 12, 1919 in a rich family. His basic interests were maths and physics and in order to provide facilities of study in physics to the country, he established Physical Reseande Laboratory. His first love was the study of cosmic rays, but he is better known as a man to usher the space age in India. The credit for much of what India achieved in space technology goes to him though he did not live to see the fruits of his labour.
Vikram Sarabhai
Vikram Sarabhai was born on Aug. 12, 1919 in a rich family. His basic interests were maths and physics and in order to provide facilities of study in physics to the country, he established Physical Reseande Laboratory. His first love was the study of cosmic rays, but he is better known as a man to usher the space age in India. The credit for much of what India achieved in space technology goes to him though he did not live to see the fruits of his labour. The International Astronomical Union named after him a crator on the moon in the sea of serenity. He was first chairman of the Indian National committee for Space Research.

19. Shambu Nath De

Shambu Nath De was born in 1st Feb. 1915 in the small village of Garibati near Calcutta. He did his Ph.D. in London in medicine and came back to work at Neal Ratan Sircar Medical College, Calcutta. His main discovery was of the poisonous or toxic substance, 'enterotoxin' that causes Cholera and was published in Nature in 1959. However his discovery could get no recognition or even attention, till his death in 1985.
Shambu Nath De
Shambu Nath De was born in 1st Feb. 1915 in the small village of Garibati near Calcutta. He did his Ph.D. in London in medicine and came back to work at Neal Ratan Sircar Medical College, Calcutta. His main discovery was of the poisonous or toxic substance, 'enterotoxin' that causes Cholera and was published in Nature in 1959. However his discovery could get no recognition or even attention, till his death in 1985. However later on it has paved a new path in cholera research and has led to the creation of oral vaccine for its prevention and control.

20. Subramanyam Chandra Shekhar

Subramanyam Chandra Shekhar was born on Oct. 19, 1910 in Lahore, now in Pakistan. His papers were published in reputed journals even before he was a graduate. One of them even appeared in the proceeding of Royal Society, a rare honour for one so young. At the age of 27, his reputation as a promising astrophysicist had been established. He is best known for Chandra Shekhar's Limit which imposes a restriction on the size o highly dense variety of stars, known as White Dwarf. If this type of star has mass in excess of that limit it explodes like thousands of nuclear bombs ignited together to become a very bright star called Super Nova until all the excess matter is shed into space.
Subramanyam Chandra Shekhar
Subramanyam Chandra Shekhar was born on Oct. 19, 1910 in Lahore, now in Pakistan. His papers were published in reputed journals even before he was a graduate. One of them even appeared in the proceeding of Royal Society, a rare honour for one so young. At the age of 27, his reputation as a promising astrophysicist had been established. He is best known for Chandra Shekhar's Limit which imposes a restriction on the size o highly dense variety of stars, known as White Dwarf. If this type of star has mass in excess of that limit it explodes like thousands of nuclear bombs ignited together to become a very bright star called Super Nova until all the excess matter is shed into space. He shifted to U.S.A. in 1937 and continued research in the study of stars for which he was awarded Noble Prize in 1983. He passed away on Aug. 21, 1995.

21. Homi Jehangir Bhabha

Homi Hehangir Bhabha was born on Oct. 30, 1909 in a Parsi family. Had the opportunity to work with eminent physicists like Fermi and Wolfgang Pauli. In the beginning worked in the field of cosmic rays but became interested in nuclear physics. With the help of his relatives, Tatas he established Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in 1945. In 1948, Atomic Energy Commission was set up and Bhabha was made its chairman. Under his able guidance three atomic reactors, Apsara, Cirus and Zerlina were built. The construction of country's first atomic power station began at Tarapore. Initially called Atomic Energy Establishment Trombay was renamed as Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in 1967 as tribute to Bhabha.
Homi Hehangir Bhabha
Homi Hehangir Bhabha was born on Oct. 30, 1909 in a Parsi family. Had the opportunity to work with eminent physicists like Fermi and Wolfgang Pauli. In the beginning worked in the field of cosmic rays but became interested in nuclear physics. With the help of his relatives, Tatas he established Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in 1945. In 1948, Atomic Energy Commission was set up and Bhabha was made its chairman. Under his able guidance three atomic reactors, Apsara, Cirus and Zerlina were built. The construction of country's first atomic power station began at Tarapore. Initially called Atomic Energy Establishment Trombay was renamed as Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in 1967 as tribute to Bhabha. The radio telescope at Otakamund is one of his creations. He is rightly called the father of Indian nuclear physics. He was elected fellow of Royal Society. He died in a plane crash at the age of 57.

22. B.P.Pal (Benjamin Peary Pal)

B.P. Pal was born on May 26, 1906 in Mukund Pur, Punjab. Spent early days in Burma and in 1929 went to Cambridge for research in wheat. In 1933 joined Indian Agricultural Research Institute in New Delhi. He developed NP (New Pusa) 700 and NP-800 and most important NP 809 which can combat all three types of rust. In 1965 became Director General of newly founded Indian Council of Agricultural Research. He was awarded many prizes and in 1972 elected Fellow of Royal Society.
B.P. Pal
B.P. Pal was born on May 26, 1906 in Mukund Pur, Punjab. Spent early days in Burma and in 1929 went to Cambridge for research in wheat. In 1933 joined Indian Agricultural Research Institute in New Delhi. He developed NP (New Pusa) 700 and NP-800 and most important NP 809 which can combat all three types of rust. In 1965 became Director General of newly founded Indian Council of Agricultural Research. He was awarded many prizes and in 1972 elected Fellow of Royal Society. He has also done significant research on roses. The origin of green revolution can he traced to his researches and plans.

23. Dattareya Ram Chandra Kaprekar

Dattareya Ram Chandra Karekar was born on Jan. 17, 1905 in Dahanu near Mumbai. He won Wrangler R.P.Paranjpe Mathematical Prize for an original piece of work in mathematics before he was graduate. In 1946 he discovered a magic number 6174 which is called Kaprekar constant. To see how it is constant, take any four digit number in which all digits are different. Arrange the digits in descending order and reverse them to make a new number. Subtract the new number from the first number. If this process is repeated with the remainder eventually, the constant 6174 is arrived at and this number generates itself.
Dattareya Ram Chandra Karekar
Dattareya Ram Chandra Karekar was born on Jan. 17, 1905 in Dahanu near Mumbai. He won Wrangler R.P.Paranjpe Mathematical Prize for an original piece of work in mathematics before he was graduate. In 1946 he discovered a magic number 6174 which is called Kaprekar constant. To see how it is constant, take any four digit number in which all digits are different. Arrange the digits in descending order and reverse them to make a new number. Subtract the new number from the first number. If this process is repeated with the remainder eventually, the constant 6174 is arrived at and this number generates itself. Kaprekar is also recognized for his significant contribution to Demlo Numbers and other recreational mathematical problems. He passed away in 1988.

24. Panchanan Mahashwari

Panchanan Mahashwari was born on Nov. 09, 1904 in Jaipur, Rajasthan. He was a student of Winfield Dudgon, an American missionary, who was a renowned botanist and president of Indian Botanical Society. He pursued studies in plant embryology and can be called father of modern embryology. He invented the technique of test tube fertilization of angiosperms. Cross breeding of many flowering plants which can not cross breed naturally can be done now by his technique. Many newly discovered plants have been named after him like Panchanania, Jaipuriensis and Isoetes Panchanani.
Panchanan Mahashwari
Panchanan Mahashwari was born on Nov. 09, 1904 in Jaipur, Rajasthan. He was a student of Winfield Dudgon, an American missionary, who was a renowned botanist and president of Indian Botanical Society. He pursued studies in plant embryology and can be called father of modern embryology. He invented the technique of test tube fertilization of angiosperms. Cross breeding of many flowering plants which can not cross breed naturally can be done now by his technique. Many newly discovered plants have been named after him like Panchanania, Jaipuriensis and Isoetes Panchanani. In 1951 he founded International Society of Plant Morphology. He died on May 18, 1966.

25. Raj Chandra Bose

Raj Chandra Bose was born on June 19, 1901 at Hoshangabad in Madhya Pradesh but grew up in Rohtak. Lost his parents when he was just 19 years old and so had to look after his family, which he did by taking tutions while studying himself. He passed M.A. in applied mathematics. The great statistician, Mahalanobis saw one of his research papers in geometry and was so impressed that he called him at Indian Statistical Institute. Later on he migrated to U.S.A. where he worked as professor of statistics at University of North Carolina and then at Colorado University. He discovered new codes for telecommunication in place of Morse code, which have been named Bose-Ray-Chaudhary code.
Raj Chandra Bose
Raj Chandra Bose was born on June 19, 1901 at Hoshangabad in Madhya Pradesh but grew up in Rohtak. Lost his parents when he was just 19 years old and so had to look after his family, which he did by taking tutions while studying himself. He passed M.A. in applied mathematics. The great statistician, Mahalanobis saw one of his research papers in geometry and was so impressed that he called him at Indian Statistical Institute. Later on he migrated to U.S.A. where he worked as professor of statistics at University of North Carolina and then at Colorado University. He discovered new codes for telecommunication in place of Morse code, which have been named Bose-Ray-Chaudhary code. In 1976 America's highest honour to a scientist came to Bose. He was elected Fellow of U.S.Academy of Sciences.

26. Yellapragada Subha Rao

Yellapragada Subha Rao was born on Jan. 12, 1895 at Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh to poor parents. Had an attitude towards religious pursuits, but his mother prevented him from becoming a saint. He turned to Ayurvedic medicines and to propogate the importance of Ayurved to West, went to USA, where he took to Allopathy. Made many important discoveries, e.g. he discovered that phosphocreatine and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were the sources of muscular energy and make possible all physical activities of living beings.
Yellapragada Subha Rao
Yellapragada Subha Rao was born on Jan. 12, 1895 at Bhimavaram, Andhra Pradesh to poor parents. Had an attitude towards religious pursuits, but his mother prevented him from becoming a saint. He turned to Ayurvedic medicines and to propogate the importance of Ayurved to West, went to USA, where he took to Allopathy. Made many important discoveries, e.g. he discovered that phosphocreatine and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were the sources of muscular energy and make possible all physical activities of living beings. This discovery could have fetched him Nobel Prize.

27. Satyendra Nath Bose

Satyendra Nath Bose was born on Jan. 01, 1894. Worked with Meghnad Saha for some time on the work done by Max Planck and Einstein. His most prominent work is how statistics may explain the behavior of radiation and has been called Bose Statistics. Elementary particles such as photons and particles which obey Bose Statistics are called Bosons. He was elected Fellow of Royal Society. He also worked in X-ray crystallography and thermoluminesoence. He died on Feb. 04, 1974.
Satyendra Nath Bose
Satyendra Nath Bose was born on Jan. 01, 1894. Worked with Meghnad Saha for some time on the work done by Max Planck and Einstein. His most prominent work is how statistics may explain the behavior of radiation and has been called Bose Statistics. Elementary particles such as photons and particles which obey Bose Statistics are called Bosons. He was elected Fellow of Royal Society. He also worked in X-ray crystallography and thermoluminesoence. He died on Feb. 04, 1974.

28. Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar

Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar was born on Feb. 21, 1894 at Shahpur now in Pakistan. During his stay abroad, he did excellent research on emulsions and received his D.Sc. from London University in 1921. His other field of work were colloids, industrial chemistry and magneto chemistry. He designed and fabricated a balance in collaboration with R.N. Mathur called Bhatnagar-Mathur interference balance, which is of immense use for studies in chemicals and chemical reactions. He was the first director of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. He produced in his laboratory such articles as anti-gas cloth, unburstable containers and plastics from waste.
Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar
Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar was born on Feb. 21, 1894 at Shahpur now in Pakistan. During his stay abroad, he did excellent research on emulsions and received his D.Sc. from London University in 1921. His other field of work were colloids, industrial chemistry and magneto chemistry. He designed and fabricated a balance in collaboration with R.N. Mathur called Bhatnagar-Mathur interference balance, which is of immense use for studies in chemicals and chemical reactions. He was the first director of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. He produced in his laboratory such articles as anti-gas cloth, unburstable containers and plastics from waste. He was elected Fellow of Royal Society in 1943. He was instrumental in starting chain of national laboratories in India. In his honour the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research awards every year the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science and Technology to young scientists for outstanding contribution to science and technology. He died on Jan. 01, 1955.

29. Prasant Chandra Mahalanobis

Prasant Chandra Mahalanobis was the first Indian statistician to receive world recognition, In fact the history of statistics in India is his personal history. He made use of statistics to solve many problems, such as disastrous floods due to many rivers. The Hira Kud Hydroelectric project as well as Damodar Valley Hydroelectric project are based on his statistical studies. He founded Indian Statistical Research Institute as Calcutta and it was because of his untiring efforts that statistics found its place in the curriculum of various universities of India.
Prasant Chandra Mahalanobis
Prasant Chandra Mahalanobis was the first Indian statistician to receive world recognition, In fact the history of statistics in India is his personal history. He made use of statistics to solve many problems, such as disastrous floods due to many rivers. The Hira Kud Hydroelectric project as well as Damodar Valley Hydroelectric project are based on his statistical studies. He founded Indian Statistical Research Institute as Calcutta and it was because of his untiring efforts that statistics found its place in the curriculum of various universities of India. He was elected fellow of Royal Society in 1945. He died in 1972.

30. Meghnad Saha

Meghnad Saha was born on Oct. 06, 1893 in Seoratali, Dacca, now in Bangladesh. In childhood, he boycotted the school on the visit of British Governor and so was turned out of the school and lost his scholarship. After passing school certificate in first division, he joined Presidency College Calcutta where he was taught by teachers like J.C. Bose and P.C. Ray and had school mates like S.N. Bose and P.C. Mahalanobis. Working in the field of astrophysich, he put forward an ionization formula, which enabled an astronomer to know the temperature, pressure and other aspects of interior of the sun or any other star. In 1927 he was elected Fellow of Royal Society.
Meghnad Saha
Meghnad Saha was born on Oct. 06, 1893 in Seoratali, Dacca, now in Bangladesh. In childhood, he boycotted the school on the visit of British Governor and so was turned out of the school and lost his scholarship. After passing school certificate in first division, he joined Presidency College Calcutta where he was taught by teachers like J.C. Bose and P.C. Ray and had school mates like S.N. Bose and P.C. Mahalanobis. Working in the field of astrophysich, he put forward an ionization formula, which enabled an astronomer to know the temperature, pressure and other aspects of interior of the sun or any other star. In 1927 he was elected Fellow of Royal Society. He founded Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics in Calcutta in 1948. He also helped in many river Valley projects including Damodar Valley. Bhakhra-Nangal and Hira Kud projects. He also started a magazine "Science and Culture". In 1952 he was elected an M.P. as independent candidate. He died on Feb. 16, 1956.

31. Birbal Sahni

Birbal Sahni was born on Nov. 14, 1891 in Bhera, Punjab now in Pakistan. After securing D.Sc. from London University in 1919, he took up research on fems, conifers and fossil plants under the guidance of noted botanist A.C. Steward. In 1929 he became the first Indian to get D.Sc. from Cambridge University. In 1936, was elected Fellow of Royal Society. He discovered many new genes of plants from Raj Mahal hills in Bihar and new group of fossil gymnosperms called pentoxyleae. He was a geologist too and estimated the age of some old rocks.
Birbal Sahni
Birbal Sahni was born on Nov. 14, 1891 in Bhera, Punjab now in Pakistan. After securing D.Sc. from London University in 1919, he took up research on fems, conifers and fossil plants under the guidance of noted botanist A.C. Steward. In 1929 he became the first Indian to get D.Sc. from Cambridge University. In 1936, was elected Fellow of Royal Society. He discovered many new genes of plants from Raj Mahal hills in Bihar and new group of fossil gymnosperms called pentoxyleae. He was a geologist too and estimated the age of some old rocks. In archaeology, his investigations led to the discovery of coin moulds in Rohtak in 1936.

32. Chandra Shekhar Venkat Raman

Chandra Shekhar Venkat Raman was born on Nov. 07, 1888 in Thiruchirapalli in Tamilnadu. He was initially interested in acoustics and studied how bowed string instruments like the Violin and Sitar could produce harmonious music at Indian Association for Cultivation of Science at Calcutta. However, while returning from abroad by a ship, he wondered at the blueness of sky and sea water. He worked for it and found out that it was due to scattering of light by water molecules. This research known as Raman Effect won him Nobel Prize in 1930. He was elected Fellow of Royal Society in 1924. He was also awarded Bharat Ratna.
Chandra Shekhar Venkat Raman
Chandra Shekhar Venkat Raman was born on Nov. 07, 1888 in Thiruchirapalli in Tamilnadu. He was initially interested in acoustics and studied how bowed string instruments like the Violin and Sitar could produce harmonious music at Indian Association for Cultivation of Science at Calcutta. However, while returning from abroad by a ship, he wondered at the blueness of sky and sea water. He worked for it and found out that it was due to scattering of light by water molecules. This research known as Raman Effect won him Nobel Prize in 1930. He was elected Fellow of Royal Society in 1924. He was also awarded Bharat Ratna. In 1943 he founded his own institute near Banglore, Raman Research Institute. He died on Nov. 21, 1970.

33. Shri Niwas Ramanujam

Shri Niwas Ramanujam was born on Dec. 22, 1887 in Erode, Tamilnadu. At the age of 13 he was able to get Lony's trigonometry from the college library. Not only did he mastered this difficult book but also began his own research. Ramanujam secured a first class in mathematics in matriculation and was awarded Subramanyam Scholarship, but he failed twice in his first year examination in college, as he neglected other subjects. Although did not have qualifying degree, yet was elected a Fellow of Royal Society and Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. He worked with great mathematicians. G.H. Hardy and J.E. Little Wood at Cambridge.
Shri Niwas Ramanujam
Shri Niwas Ramanujam was born on Dec. 22, 1887 in Erode, Tamilnadu. At the age of 13 he was able to get Lony's trigonometry from the college library. Not only did he mastered this difficult book but also began his own research. Ramanujam secured a first class in mathematics in matriculation and was awarded Subramanyam Scholarship, but he failed twice in his first year examination in college, as he neglected other subjects. Although did not have qualifying degree, yet was elected a Fellow of Royal Society and Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. He worked with great mathematicians. G.H. Hardy and J.E. Little Wood at Cambridge. His major achievements at Cambridge were Hardy-Ramanujam-Little Wood Circle Method in number theory, Roger-Ramanujam identities in partition of integers, a long list of highest composite numbers, besides work on the number theory and the algebra of inequalities. Died at an early age of 33 on April 26, 1920.

34. D.N. Wadia

D.N. Wadia was born on Oct. 25, 1883 in Surat, Gujarat. After passing M.Sc. in Biology and Geology from Baroda college. He joined Prince of Wales College, Jammu. Here he became interested in the Himalayan rocks and made important contributions in the study of geology of the Himalayas. He not only gave the mechanism of their formation and growth, but tried to explain the various puzzling features in their structures e.g. actuate hairpin bend in the eastern Himalayas.
D.N. Wadia
D.N. Wadia was born on Oct. 25, 1883 in Surat, Gujarat. After passing M.Sc. in Biology and Geology from Baroda college. He joined Prince of Wales College, Jammu. Here he became interested in the Himalayan rocks and made important contributions in the study of geology of the Himalayas. He not only gave the mechanism of their formation and growth, but tried to explain the various puzzling features in their structures e.g. actuate hairpin bend in the eastern Himalayas. He was elected fellow of Royal Society, the only Indian Geologist so far to be given this honour.

35. Moksha Gundam Visvesvarya

Moksha Gundam Visvesvarya was born on Sept. 15, 1861 in Muddenahally, Mysore. After passing his degree examination, he took a degree in civil engineering. He worked out a system of automatic gates at Khadakwasla dam to control the flood waters. He was the mastermind to build Krishna Sagar dam. He worked as chief engineer in the state of Mysore and later as Deewan (Prime Minister) of the state. Among the institutions and schemes which he gifted to Mysore are the Bank of Mysore in 1913, the Malnad Improvement Scheme in 1914, Engineering College Bangalore in 1916, Mysore University in 1918, the plans of Bhadhravathi Iron works in 1918 and Harnessing Hydroelectric Power at Jog in 1918.
Moksha Gundam Visvesvarya
Moksha Gundam Visvesvarya was born on Sept. 15, 1861 in Muddenahally, Mysore. After passing his degree examination, he took a degree in civil engineering. He worked out a system of automatic gates at Khadakwasla dam to control the flood waters. He was the mastermind to build Krishna Sagar dam. He worked as chief engineer in the state of Mysore and later as Deewan (Prime Minister) of the state. Among the institutions and schemes which he gifted to Mysore are the Bank of Mysore in 1913, the Malnad Improvement Scheme in 1914, Engineering College Bangalore in 1916, Mysore University in 1918, the plans of Bhadhravathi Iron works in 1918 and Harnessing Hydroelectric Power at Jog in 1918. He was awarded the title of Kaiser-i-Hind by English Government and Bharat Ratna in independent India. He worked throughout his life saying that it is better to work out than rust out. He died on April 14, 1962.

36. Jagdish Chander Bose

Jagdish Chander Bose was born on Nov. 30, 1858 in Mymensing now in Bangladesh. In 1885 he was offered lectureship at Presidency College, Calcutta, on a salary half that of his white colleagues. He accepted the job but refused to draw salary. After three years, when the college principal, a Britisher found him to be a brilliant teacher conceded his demand and paid full salary since his appointment. Published his monograph 'Response in Living and Non-living' and showed experimentally, before the Royal Society that plants and metals have life. He can be called the inventor of wireless telegraphy as he held a demonstration about it one year before Marconi got it patented in his name.
Jagdish Chander Bose
Jagdish Chander Bose was born on Nov. 30, 1858 in Mymensing now in Bangladesh. In 1885 he was offered lectureship at Presidency College, Calcutta, on a salary half that of his white colleagues. He accepted the job but refused to draw salary. After three years, when the college principal, a Britisher found him to be a brilliant teacher conceded his demand and paid full salary since his appointment. Published his monograph 'Response in Living and Non-living' and showed experimentally, before the Royal Society that plants and metals have life. He can be called the inventor of wireless telegraphy as he held a demonstration about it one year before Marconi got it patented in his name. He was the first to fabricate the device that generated microwaves, radiowaves of short wave lengths. Also he was the first to use these microwaves to understand the structure of materials. One of the device he had fabricated, now called wave guide forms an essential component of several sophisticated electronic and nuclear equipments. He fabricated a highly sensitive "coheser" the device that detects radiowaves. Most wonderful instrument he invented was crescograph which measures the rate of growth of plants 20,000 times slower than snails speed. He founded Bose Institute at Calcutta. Jagdish Chander Bose died on Nov. 23, 1937.

37. Sawai Jai Singh II

Sawai Jai Singh II was born on 1688. He was crowned as king of Amber at the age of 11. Apart from being king he was an eminent astronomer and architect. In 1727 he designed a new capital Jaipur, marvelous example of architecture. He collected astronomical treatises and tables from Portugal, Arabia and Europe and got them translated into Sanskrit and gave them Sanskrit names. He also brought a telescope from Europe and then began to build them himself. He got constructed first Jantar Mantar in 1724 at Delhi and in 1734 published his observations made in Delhi in the form of a table in Persian, titled Ziz Muhammed Shahi in the honour of his patron, the emperor, Muhammed Shah. In Jantar Mantar he built huge instruments in the form of masonry structures of lime and plaster. Among the instruments he designed himself are Samrat Yantra, Ram Yantra and Jai Prakash.
Sawai Jai Singh II
Sawai Jai Singh II was born on 1688. He was crowned as king of Amber at the age of 11. Apart from being king he was an eminent astronomer and architect. In 1727 he designed a new capital Jaipur, marvelous example of architecture. He collected astronomical treatises and tables from Portugal, Arabia and Europe and got them translated into Sanskrit and gave them Sanskrit names. He also brought a telescope from Europe and then began to build them himself. He got constructed first Jantar Mantar in 1724 at Delhi and in 1734 published his observations made in Delhi in the form of a table in Persian, titled Ziz Muhammed Shahi in the honour of his patron, the emperor, Muhammed Shah. In Jantar Mantar he built huge instruments in the form of masonry structures of lime and plaster. Among the instruments he designed himself are Samrat Yantra, Ram Yantra and Jai Prakash. The first is a sun clock which measurers the time with an accuracy of half a minute. Ram Yantra, a tall pillar inside a graduated cylinder measurers the altitude and azimuth of heavenly bodies to a high degree of precision. The most original of all is Jai Prakash a wide concave bowl on which the position of all heavenly bodies can he mapped round the clock. Later on Jantar Mantars were built at another places also.

38. BrahmGupta

BrahmGupta was born in 598 A.D. at Bhinmall in Gujrat. He became court astronomer to king Vyaghramukh of Chapa dynasty. He was a great astronomer and mathematician. He was first to frame rules for operation of Zero. He declared that addition or subtraction of zero to any quantity, negative or positive does not effect it. Product of any quantity with zero and division of any quantity by zero is infinity. He was the first to treat algebra as a different branch from arithmatic. He was the founder of a branch of higher mathematics called numerical analysis. He was conferred the title of Ganak Chakra Chudamani by the great mathematician Bhaskar. He wrote books Brahm, Sphuta, Siddhanta and Karan Khandakhadyaka.
BrahmGupta
BrahmGupta was born in 598 A.D. at Bhinmall in Gujrat. He became court astronomer to king Vyaghramukh of Chapa dynasty. He was a great astronomer and mathematician. He was first to frame rules for operation of Zero. He declared that addition or subtraction of zero to any quantity, negative or positive does not effect it. Product of any quantity with zero and division of any quantity by zero is infinity. He was the first to treat algebra as a different branch from arithmatic. He was the founder of a branch of higher mathematics called numerical analysis. He was conferred the title of Ganak Chakra Chudamani by the great mathematician Bhaskar. He wrote books Brahm, Sphuta, Siddhanta and Karan Khandakhadyaka. He died in 680 A.D.

39. Vararmihira

Vararmihira was born in 499 A.D. in Kerala He studied at Nalanda in Bihar and later was made Head of the university by Gupta ruler, Buddh Gupta. He was the first to deduce that earth is round and that it rotates on its own axis creating day and night. He also declared that moon was dark and shines only because of sun light. The true reason for Solar and Lunar eclipses were also explained by him. Apart from being a great astronomer, he was an excellent mathematician also. He gave the value of "pi" as 3.1416 for the first time. He also gave the table of sinew. His method to find a solution to in determinate equations such as ax-by=c is also recognized the world over. He wrote a book Arya Bhattiya dealing with numerous mathematical and astronomical calculations, namely, geometry, mensuration, square root, cube root, progression and celestial sphere.
Vararmihira
Vararmihira was born in 499 A.D. in Kerala He studied at Nalanda in Bihar and later was made Head of the university by Gupta ruler, Buddh Gupta. He was the first to deduce that earth is round and that it rotates on its own axis creating day and night. He also declared that moon was dark and shines only because of sun light. The true reason for Solar and Lunar eclipses were also explained by him. Apart from being a great astronomer, he was an excellent mathematician also. He gave the value of "pi" as 3.1416 for the first time. He also gave the table of sinew. His method to find a solution to in determinate equations such as ax-by=c is also recognized the world over. He wrote a book Arya Bhattiya dealing with numerous mathematical and astronomical calculations, namely, geometry, mensuration, square root, cube root, progression and celestial sphere. He wrote another book Arya Bhatt Siddhanta. India's first satellite has been named after him. He died in 520 A.D.

40. Nagarjun

Nagarjun was born in 1st Century A.D. at Amravati in Andhra Pradesh. He was a great scholar and chemist of his time. His treatise "Ras Ratnakar" dealt with preparation of Ras (mercury) compounds extraction of metals such as silver, gold, tin and cooper from their ores, the process of distilation, liquefication, sublimation and roasting. He also made attempts to prepare elixir of life and transmutation of base metals into gold. His book illustrates a number of apparatus. He also wrote another book Uttaratantra as supplement to Sushrut Samhita dealing with the preparation of medicinal drugs. Arogyamanjari, Kakshapatatantra, Yogsar and Yog Shatak are his other books.

41. Patanjali

Pantanjali was born in second century B.C. He was the person who explained vividly the fundamentals of yoga in his Yog Sutras. According to him there are channels called 'Nadis' and centres called 'Chakras' in human body and if these are tapped properly, one can acquire super-natural powers. His proclamations are now verified by several scientists throughout the world.

42. Charak

Charak was born in 2nd century A.D. wrote the book Charak Samhita, a master piece in the field of Ayurvedic Medicines. He was the first physician to present the concept of digestion, metabolism and immunity. According to him a body functions because it contains there doshas or humours viz, Bile, phelgum and wind. Illness is caused when the balance of the three doshas is disturbed. He knew fundamentals of genetics and also studied anatomy of the body.

43. Sushruta

Sushruta was born in sixth century B.C. He learnt surgery and medicine at the feat of Divodas Dhanvantary. He was the first physician to advocate Caesarean operation. He was expert in removing urinary stones, locating and treating fractures, eye operations for cataract etc. His suggestion to give wine to patients about to be operated upon, makes him also the father of anaesthesia. In his treatise known as Sushruta Samhita he has described 101 instruments, many of which are similar to those used at present.

Great Scientists Of India.

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